How to start poultry farming business in Nigeria
Do you want to go into poultry farming business in Nigeria? This page will not just tell you about poultry farming, but will show you how to start to minimize risk and increase your profit.
That would be great, right?
Well, that is entirely possible, just spare me some of your time and I will show you how easy it is.
Poultry farming in Nigeria has been around for some time. It’s a type of farm that raises domestic birds for meat and egg consumption. It can be started on a small scale or large scale.
This industry has seen a lot of surge in the past years. In 2011 Nigerian hen egg production totaled 636,000 MT and was valued at $527.49 million, ranking 19th in world hen egg production and the top producer in Africa.
If you’re just developing the business idea, starting on a small scale will help you know the technicalities of the farming business.
In according to report, poultry farming in Nigeria account for 25% commercial farmers, semi-commercial 15% and 60% of this bird are raised from the backyard
These will be as detailed as possible, to inform you of what you need to start the business of poultry farming in Nigeria.
Poultry farming business is one of the lucrative businesses in Nigeria. The business is experiencing an unprecedented growth as more Nigerians are turning away from eating smuggled bird due to health concerns.
I am going to show you the step by step guide of how to start the poultry farming business in Nigeria, but before we go into that, let’s see reasons and benefit of poultry farming.
Why choose poultry farming business in Nigeria
The increase in commercial production is as a result of the demand for poultry product. Not only in households but also in the public and private occasion, eateries, and restaurants.
Going into this business will require you to know the why. Here are some reasons that will help you.
- There is an increase in consumption of local poultry product than imported ones. This is evident due to growing health concerns in smuggled imported poultry product.
According to National Agency For Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC), they observed that there is a break in cold chain during transportation of imported poultry. As microbes begin to work on the meat. Due to the poor way of transporting this product, there is an increase in local poultry consumption.
This gives creates more market for farmers as customers will begin to focus on the local market.
- With increase effort and crackdown on fish smugglers by the Nigerian government means less smuggled poultry and more business opportunities for local farmers.
- Demand for poultry product is increasing daily due to increased number of restaurants, hotels, suya spot, social gatherings, religious gatherings, political gathering etc.
- The business can be started from the backyard of your house. However, it’s the space that will determine the number you’ll need stock.
- The poultry droppings (feces) are another source of income as it can be sold to farmers as organic fertilizer. This can augment some of the losses incurred.
Benefits of poultry farming business in Nigeria
There are several benefits of poultry farming business that you cannot afford to miss.
- The business can be started from your backyard. The space of poultry housing will determine the number of the bird.
- Poultry chicks grow fast between 8 to 24 weeks depending on the poultry bird you choose to compare to other animals like a goat that need at least two years.
- Several types of bird to choose from.
- The market for the poultry farming business to thrive is available
- The business model for poultry farming is easy to master.
- The poultry farming business we’re going to share will work irrespective of where you live.
Types of poultry bird
Before going into poultry farming, you’ll need to know the type of poultry bird that will want to use on the farm. There are basically three that you can choose from.
Broiler and cockerel
Broilers and cockerel are food meat product and the most popular way people start their poultry farming business. That is they’re grown to be consumed as meat.
For the broiler bird, it takes a minimum of 6-8 weeks depending on the breed to get to table size. Broilers are sold between 1200-2000 depending on the size and your location. The advantage of broilers over cockerel is the growth to table size is fast.
For cockerel, they need at least six months to be ready for the market. The advantage of cockerels over broilers is you can feed them with the desired poultry feed for 4-6 weeks and continue feeding with the normal food you’re feeding the local bird.
Layers are the type of poultry bird that lay eggs. A layer takes a minimum of 19nweeks to start laying. A single layer production cycle lasts from 52-56 weeks. That is just over a year. A crate can be sold for 650 naira. The layers can also be sold after their laying cycle is complete as spent layers between 800-1200.
Factors affecting poultry farming business in Nigeria
- Poor breed will not give you the desired outcome at the end of the day. No matter how you feed there will still be little improvement. These have affected many poultry farming businesses especially small-scale farmers because of the adulteration of the bird by middlemen. The main problem is at day old, it’ll be difficult to know the breed. To correct these from happening, you either wait and buy the bird after brooding period (normally takes 2 weeks) or ask other farmers who have a good breed where they’re buying their own day old.
- It’s difficult to raise these birds without mortality. According to standards, 5% mortality is expected. When mortality begins to go above that, it can be disease infection, poor ventilation, high temperature or breed from a poor source. Mostly, the 5% mortality can happen between the first two weeks. When it continues, consult a veterinarian to assist you.
- Poor ventilation can lead to their dead especially during hot weather. This can be very serious. Look for ways to create more air for the bird. Now that you know how important poultry farming is, let’s get to the steps you need to start the business.
Note: These steps works irrespective of your entry level.
Steps for starting poultry business in Nigeria
If you really want to join the business, this is the complete steps to start your poultry farming business.
Step #1: choose your poultry type
As mentioned above, there is three basic poultry type. Take your time to choose the type you think you can start with. If you’re starting a poultry farm as a beginner, I recommend starting the farm by using a single type.
This gives you focus and practically learn how the farm works. Remember broilers need 7-8 weeks to grow to table size, cockerels 6 months and layers at least 19 weeks to begin laying.
Step #2: Acquire and prepare your space
It’s time to embark on the poultry farm project. This is really vital. The way you make your poultry house will determine the number.
If possible, acquire a land that can meet your demand for today and future. This is to enable you to expand with little stress. Once you bought the land, fence and construct your poultry house.
The most important thing here is constructing a house that can have cross ventilation-poor ventilation might lead to their mortality, no space for reptiles to enter and with enough lightning.
If you’re using a spare room in your backyard or have even finished constructing your poultry house, then move to preparing the space by disinfecting the place using strong disinfectants at most two days to the arrival of the bird, putting necessary majors to prevent rodents and lizard from entering the house and so on.
Your space determines the number of bird to stock.
Step #3: Get the necessary poultry farming information
Getting the necessary poultry farming information will certainly give you more insight about what you’re going into.
There is nothing wrong in trying to know more. The number one thing that is affecting most poultry farming business is poor farm management.
That’s why you hear things like poultry farming has high risk. Well without proper management, you stand to lose.
Learning proper management like changing the water or food when there is fecal contamination reduces the chances of disease, cleaning places where there is water spillage which reduces the breeding of germs which causes diseases to this bird are all management methods.
You can equally know about how to brood, know vaccination schedule, how to know when they’re sick and the best time to buy.
Getting to know them will help you a great deal.
Step #4: Target market
There are poultry farmers who are seasonal farmers and maybe you want to be one. They stock their bird to target festive period. For instance, a farmer targeting Christmas will stock broilers at the end of October so that by the third week of December, they’re ready for the market.
Who you target will determine how frequent you stock. For those who choose layers, their market will be all year round since layers require more than 52 weeks for the laying cycle to complete.
In my opinion and base on what I’ve seen, the demand for both meat and egg is not a seasonal thing. That is to say, there is the market for the product at any time.
Step #5: Get the poultry farming equipment
When it comes to poultry farming business the following are required.
The feeders are two types the big one and the small one. The big one is sold at 500-700 while the small ones at 170-200.
Like feeders, there are big drinkers which can cost about 500-700 and the small ones between 170-200.
Let’s assume we’re stocking 100 birds, for broilers, you’ll need 16-20 bags of 25kg feed to feed them from day old to table size.
For layers, you’ll need 35-40 25kg bags to raise 100 layer birds to the point of lay.
For cockerels, you’ll need 3 bags to raise them to the point where you can start feeding them with local food.
The prices for feed vary from one company to another. Choose the feed you’ll use. I personally have used vital feed and livestock with great success. There are other feed around that are equally good.
If you’re raising 100 poultry bird, you’ll need about six feeders and four drinkers. This is to ensure equal growth as both small and big bird will feed with little stress.
Step #6: Buying your bird
By now you should have your poultry house ready. Buying your bird will require you to first book for it. The number will definitely determine the price you’re to pay. Buying day old chicks will be cheaper than buying the bird after the brooding period.
Buying from a qualified and reputable farm or middleman is the first step towards success. If you’re still not sure of where to buy, just ask a poultry farm around you or an expert for a recommendation.
Step #7: Prepare your poultry farm brooding space
This is a space created to make the environment suitable for the chick when they arrive. Remember they’re only day old.
If you’re going to do the brooding, you’ll need an area, the area that will concentrate the heat required for the environment to be conducive for the day old chicks.
Normally, the brooding room is demarcated to make the bird concentrate in that area with a light bulb is lowered to that effect and is raise up by one every three days as they grow.
When the day old chick arrives, you’re to lower them in the brooding area. When you notice chicks clustering together, then the area still isn’t conducive, you may increase the source of heat.
Whether it’s broilers, layers or cockerel, the brooding process is the same.
Step #8: begin to feed your bird
The feeding process starts from day one. Once they arrive. Make sure you get the right feed for the right type of bird.
Step #9: employ best farming practice
Hygiene is a must in poultry farming business. Begin to employ the best poultry farming practice. Here is some management practice you can employ:
- Always remove fecal contamination from their food and water. This is the number one source of disease. Which means you’ll have to be monitoring them from time to time.
One way to ease yourself from constant monitoring is to hang the feeders and drinkers in a way that only their mouth will reach the food or water.
- Maintain the vaccination schedule. Normally, where you purchase the day old, will tell you when all that will happen.
- Always reduce the feces within the farm. This makes the environment bearable to both the bird and farmer.
- When things are not clear, seek the services of an expert.
This reduces the mortality rate and increases your profitability
Step #10: Begin marketing your poultry farming business
Before the bird reaches the point of sales, you can begin to market your bird as meat or eggs to individuals, restaurant, hotels and wholesalers.
Here is how to go about it.
Let’s assume you’re growing broilers which you’ll sell in the 8 weeks.
Once it’s week 7, begin to do your marketing, but your target is the 8 week. It makes it easy to make sales on your target day.
You may ask, what if you don’t sell all at the required date?
Well, you dress your chicken and sell them as frozen chicken. In fact, many love it that way.
Step #11: Profitability of poultry farming in Nigeria
Well the profitability of poultry farming in Nigeria will depend on two things that can guarantee your business success:
- The poultry bird breed
- Effective management
When you have the right breed and you manage the bird accordingly, you’ll definitely have a lower mortality rate. Good breed produces good meat or egg. Lower mortality will ensure you get the maximum return on investment.
Base on my experience, the return on investment is between 60-80%.
Succeeding in poultry farming business
Poultry farming in Nigeria is not a business that offers a quick way to wealth. When you take it as a business, you begin to see the fruit. Here are some key things to help you succeed.
- Always make the environment hygienic to prevent the chance of disease, which reduces mortality and thus increase your profit.
- Buy day old chick from reputable vendors. Always sign an agreement so that when the vendor will pay you when things go wrong.
- The poultry farming environment is not for everyone, try to restrict movement in the environment.
Poultry farming business in Nigeria has a lot of potentials to grow. This business will continue to thrive as opportunity grows. With the determination and the drive, you can make a profit from the business.
Starting a poultry farming business can be an exciting way to jump into the poultry industry.
What will you add to the poultry farming business in Nigeria? Feel Free to make your contribution.